Terpenes (/ˈtɜːrpiːn/) are a large and diverse class of organic compounds, produced by a variety of plants, particularly conifers, and by some insects. They often have a strong odor, and may protect the plants that produce them by deterring herbivores, and by attracting predators and parasites of herbivores.
Terpenes produce a subtler effect than its cannabinoid counterparts in terms of psychoactive effects. These aromatic substances have been a part of aromatherapy and other holistic therapies for many years. They have been used to affect a person’s stress levels and mood. Researchers believe these compounds derived from plants can elevate a person’s experience in a phenomenon known as the entourage effect.
Our body’s endocannabinoid system is a network of cannabinoid receptors that helps regulate critical biological processes such as mood, memory, appetite, pain, and stress. While clinical studies are minimal on the medicinal effects of these compounds in plants, they have shown to have the following therapeutic properties:
Differences Between Terpenes and Terpenoids
You might have heard about terpenoids, which are compounds related to terpenes. The terms terpenoid and terpene are often used interchangeably, but they have different meanings. The main distinction between them is that terpenes are hydrocarbons, with the only components present being hydrogen and carbon. Terpenoids, on the other hand, have been dried and cured, and therefore chemically modified.
Terpenes are the major components of rosin and of turpentine produced from resin. The name “terpene” is derived from the word “terpentine”, an obsolete spelling of the word “turpentine”. Terpenes are also major biosynthetic building blocks. Steroids, for example, are derivatives of the triterpene squalene.
Terpenes and terpenoids are the primary constituents of the essential oils of many types of plants and flowers. Essential oils are used widely as fragrances in perfumery and traditional medicine, such as aromatherapy. Synthetic variations and derivatives of natural terpenes and terpenoids also greatly expand the variety of aromas used in perfumery and flavors used in food additives. Vitamin A is a terpenoid.
Fruit. Flowers. Spices. Vegetables. Plants. Terpenes give everything their distinctive scent!
Functions of Terpenes
Terpenes ensure several functions. Plants use these aromatic compounds to attract the insects that pollinate flowers, thus ensuring reproduction. Terpenes also provide the cannabis plant with natural protection from insects, bacteria, fungus and other environmental stresses. Since plants can’t move to escape predators or flee when nearby plants begin overwhelming their territory, they have come up with an efficient defense system: terpenes.
Imagine an amazing orange—fresh and juicy. The moment you break it open, you smell terpenes…squeeze the skin, and the air fills with luscious sweet orange. Limonene is the primary terpene, as well as a-pinene, camphene, sabinene, b-pinene, myrcene, d-3-carene, terpinolene, a-copaene, b-elemene, b-caryophyllene, a-cadinene, a-humulene, b-farnesene, valencene, and d-cadinene.
Research into the effects of cannabis has uncovered the power of terpenes as medicine, with wide ranging potential for treating many ailments.
Terpenes and Medical Cannabis
Richard Nixon was afraid of science—the “War on Drugs” effectively shut down Cannabis research for 50 years. We love science. After the Global community of researchers were freed to study, we now have proof about the many compounds in Cannabis. Dedicated to uncovering the compounds behind the healing “miracles” that electrified the medical community after “Charlotte” and her story became public, open-minded researchers have been tirelessly studying cannabinoids and terpenes, searching for the science behind the effects. We know many of the “miracles” attributed to Cannabis—and the science is clear on the benefits of CBD, CBG, CBN, and other cannabinoids… yet, the most fascinating compounds within Cannabis plant are Terpenes, and the fascinating interaction they have with THC.
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is one of at least 113 cannabinoids identified in cannabis.
THC is the principal psychoactive constituent of cannabis.
Hundreds of Millions of us have used “Mary Jane” to experiment, passing a joint from hand to hand—around a cosmic fire pit, from one to another—sharing the undeniable abundance of natural medicine and transformative power of “smoke”. The unique experience of Cannabis changed our culture, opening hearts and minds to new worlds, fresh music, and art that defies traditional boundaries. In just 50 years, Cannabis changed everything, including our understanding of plants and their medical applications.
THC is expansive, opening portals to new ways of thinking and living while igniting feelings of connection and wellbeing. Socializing becomes effortless, and a vibration of love seems to envelop you and those around you. Pain and stress fade away…
Fun is impossible to avoid after smoking the right strain at the right time!
One big question remains:
So… why is does Cannabis relieve my pain, ease my stress, and make like brighter???
It’s not just the THC…
Cannabis is full of terpenes!
Where Cannabis Terpenes Come From
Terpenes are synthesized in the plant inside glandular trichomes in secretory cells, and exposure to light increases production. Terpenes in cannabis are mostly found in unfertilized female marijuana flowers in high concentrations before their deterioration process.
Growers use steam distillation or vaporization to extract the essential oils from the plant. A lot of terpenes vaporize at much the same temperature as THC, although some are more volatile.
ter-wahr; French ter-war IPA
- the environmental conditions, especially soil and climate, in which grapes are grown and that give a Cannabis its unique flavor and aroma: the high quality of the region’s terroir.
If you have ever delved into wine drinking, you may have heard about terroir—basically, the affect of place on the various grape varieties that go into a bottle of vino. A bottle of cheap wine tastes like a bottle of cheap wine, but a Bordeaux from a small vintner and ancient vines is something totally different. The color, flavor and scent—terpenes and flavonoids —are the magical elements of terroir…
It’s the ineffable qualities of the cannabis experience that make it special, whether you are looking for pain relief, stress reduction, or just that free-lifestyle vibration after a long day. THC is like the cornerstone of the compounds, while it’s the terpenes that synergistically enhance the experience, amplifying certain qualities and creating what we call the Entourage Effect: cannabinoids and terpenoids working together, nourished by light, filled with Prana, and fed with the unique touch of the grower.
Blue Dream from one farm will have similar qualities to Blue Dream from a different grow: the genetics may be identical, but it’s the magical blend of the land, climate, and nutrients that give each strain—literally each flower—it’s unique terroir.
THC is THC is THC: unless you mix It with terpenes
What gives each strain of cannabis it’s unique “buzz”? You thought that cannabinoids were the compounds in the cannabis plant that caused healing, right? Yes, but it’s been discovered that terpenes can play a big role in that as well.
Whether you use Cannabis for treating disease, or to take the stress away after a long day, you know when a particular cannabis strain works for you—and another doesn’t. The THC level is not the issue: the particular effect of a given cannabis strain is due to the Intermingling of Cannabinoids and terpenes.
Of course, THC is the major component of what we traditionally think of as “high”. THC Isolate will create the “high” sensation—but the benefits of cannabis are contained in the myriad of compounds resident within the natural plant. Our understanding of the various interactions is still expanding: researchers have coined the term “entourage effect” to describe the cannabis experience. The entourage effect simply means that cannabinoids such as THC and CBD, along with the hundreds of other compounds, along with the terpenes, are meant to work together. It’s the whole plant that does the best job, not just a single compound. While relief does come from using a CBD oil or a THC oil, whole plant therapy has been the most common use. Utilizing all the compounds and terpenes in the plant may just be the best way after all.
Differences in Sativa and Indica Strains
Terpene profiles vary by strain and batch. A couple of clones of the same cannabis plant can have wildly different terpene concentrations based on their growing environment. That’s why your favorite strain may smell a bit different each time you buy a different batch. While most strains are hybrids with varying terpene levels, there are some differences between sativas and indicas.
Indica strains tend to have higher concentrations of the beta-myrcene terpene. Alpha-pinene and limonene are also common in indicas but at lower levels. High levels of myrcene are associated with a sedating and relaxing effect.
Sativa terpene commonalities aren’t as easy to pin down. Sativa strains can also feature a high level of beta-myrcene. Alpha-pinene and alpha-terpinolene terpene concentrations are a close second and third, and sometimes first, to myrcene.
Terpenes In Cannabis
Myrcene, specifically β-myrcene, is a monoterpene and the most common terpene produced by cannabis (some varieties contain up to 60% of the essential oil). Its aroma has been described as musky, earthy, herbal – akin to cloves. A high myrcene level in cannabis (usually above 0.5%) results in the well-known “couch-lock” effect of classic Indica strains.
Myrcene, also known as beta-myrcene, is a monoterpene found in cannabis, parsley, lemongrass, cardamom, mango, hops, and many more fruits and plants. Myrcene is a common compound that has a peppery, balsam, and spicy aroma. Some estimates show that myrcene accounts for over 20% of many cannabis strains’ terpene profile.
As a result of its relatively high terpene concentration, myrcene significantly affects the smell of your strain. Myrcene has been used throughout history in folk medicine as a painkiller. Researchers believe the myrcene terpenes can inhibit pain and inflammation, although its exact mechanism of action is unknown.
More commonly, myrcene is known for its sedative effect. A 2002 study on mice found that myrcene had sedative properties at high doses. Studies on mice show that myrcene has muscle relaxant effects and increases the amount of time spent asleep. The results worked better with a combination of conventional medicines.
A 2015 study published in the Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry found that myrcene induced cell death of human breast cancer cells. A study in 2017 found that myrcene protected human skin against ultraviolet light-induced aging. Its antioxidant properties could potentially enhance the effect of protective lotions.
Since myrcene is normally found in essential oil from citrus fruit, many claim eating a fresh mango about 45 minutes before consuming cannabis will result in a faster onset of psycho activity and greater intensity. Be sure to choose a mango that is ripe otherwise the myrcene level will be too low to make a difference.
Pinene’s naturally piney scent can be found in basil, rosemary, and pine needles. Alpha-pinene is the most common type of pinene terpene, apart from beta-pinene, found in cannabis. A 2015 study found that alpha-pinene exhibited anti-inflammatory properties in animal cells. A 2017 study showed that pinene’s anti-inflammatory effects could protect the skin from UV damage.
A 2018 study found that both alpha- and beta-pinene have anti-cancer properties. In particular, researchers found alpha-pinene could treat prostate cancer in mice. Both types of pinene have also displayed antimicrobial effects in comparing Candida Albicans, a yeast fungus that can affect the human body.
Pinene has gained a lot of interest as an anti-anxiety terpene. A 2012 study discovered that beta-pinene (and linalool) produced antidepressant effects in mice. Studies have also shown pinene reduces the bronchitisinfection in animals. It’s also had promising effects against Alzheimer’s disease and other neurological conditions and symptoms.
It easily crosses the blood-brain barrier where it acts as a acetylcholinesterase inhibitor; that is, it inhibits activity of a chemical that destroys an information transfer molecule. This results in better memory. Pinene also promotes alertness and memory retention. Largely due to the presence of pinene, rosemary and sage are both considered “memory plants.” Concoctions made from their leaves have been used for thousands of years in traditional medicine to retain and restore memory. It is also a bronchodilator. A pharmacokinetics study of inhaled α-pinene in humans demonstrated 60% uptake, and a relative bronchodilation effect. The smoke seems to expand in your lungs and the high comes on very quickly since a high percentage of the substance will pass into the bloodstream and brain. It also increases focus, self satisfaction and energy, which generally counteracts with the presence of Terpineol. α-Pinene has inhibited acetylcholinesterase suggesting utility in the clinical treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.
Limonene is a monocyclic monoterpenoid and one of two major compounds formed from pinene. As the name suggests, varieties high in limonene have strong citrusy smells like oranges, lemons and limes. Strains high in limonene promote a general uplift in mood and attitude. This citrusy terpene is the major constituent in citrus fruit rinds, rosemary, juniper and peppermint, as well as in several pine needle oils.
Limonene is a popular cannabis strain known for its fruity and citrus aroma. Some studies have shown that limonene has anti-inflammatory responses. A 2017 study on rats with ulcerative colitis found that limonene reduced inflammation and colon damage. Another study found limonene reduced free radicals in leukemia cells, which helped decrease inflammation.
Limonene has a wide array of effects on cancer. A population study found that those who consumed citrus fruit peel had a reduced risk of developing skin cancer compared to those who consumed only citrus fruit and its juices. When taken orally, limonene can stall the progress of cancer. Some research shows that limonene prevents inflammation and oxidative stress.
Limonene has proved useful in improving heart health in animal models. Limonene can lower heart disease risk factors such as cholesterol, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels. Limonene has also shown to reduce appetite, reduce stress and anxiety, and support proper digestion.
Beta-caryophyllene is a sesquiterpene found in many plants such as Thai basils, cloves, cinnamon leaves and black pepper, and in minor quantities in lavender. It’s aroma has been described as peppery, woody and/or spicy. Caryophyllene is the only terpene known to interact with the endocannabinoid system (CB2). Studies show β–caryophyllene holds promise in cancer treatment plans. Research shows shows that β–caryophyllene selectively binds to the CB2 receptor and that it is a functional CB2 agonist. Further, β–caryophyllene was identified as a functional non-psychoactive CB2 receptor ligand in foodstuff and as a macrocyclic anti-inflammatory cannabinoid in cannabis.
Beta caryophyllene has potential anti-inflammatory effects on conditions like arthritis. A 2018 study found that doses of 215 mg and 430 mg of caryophyllene reduced the swelling of lymph nodes in healthy rats.
In a 2016 study, beta caryophyllene reduced the growth and spread of cancer cells. It also improved the effectiveness of cancer treatments. There’s also some evidence based on a 2014 study that this terpene can help balance glucose levels in rats, which could be helpful in the management of diabetes.
A 2013 study found that mice injected with capsaicin experienced pain relief with caryophyllene. Caryophyllene has also shown promise as a sleep aid. A 2012 study suggested that the caryophyllene terpene increased sleep time and decreased locomotion and body temperature in animal models
In a 2016 study, beta caryophyllene reduced the growth and spread of cancer cells. It also improved the effectiveness of cancer treatments. There’s also some evidence based on a 2014 study that this terpene can help balance glucose levels in rats, which could be helpful in the management of diabetes
The Fine/Rosenfeld pain study demonstrates that other phytocannabinoids in combination, especially cannabidiol (CBD) and β-caryophyllene, delivered by the oral route appear to be promising candidates for the treatment of chronic pain due to their high safety and low adverse effects profiles.
The Horváth et al study suggests β-caryophyllene, through a CB2 receptor dependent pathway, may be an excellent therapeutic agent to prevent nephrotoxicity (poisonous effect on the kidneys) caused by anti-cancer chemotherapy drugs such as cisplatin.
The Jeena, Liju et al study investigated the chemical composition of essential oil isolated from black pepper, of which caryophyllene is a main constituent, and studied its pharmacological properties. Black pepper oil was found to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive properties. This suggests that high-caryophyllene strains may be useful in treating a number of medical issues such as arthritis and neuropathy pain.
Linalool is a non-cyclic monoterpenoid and has been described as having floral and lavender undertones. Varieties high in linalool promote calming, relaxing effects.
Linalool has been used for centuries as a sleep aid. Linalool lessens the anxious emotions provoked by pure THC, thus making it helpful in the treatment of both psychosis and anxiety. Studies also suggest that linalool boosts the immune system; can significantly reduce lung inflammation; and can restore cognitive and emotional function (making it useful in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease).
Linalool’s floral aroma is found in lavender and birch bark. Linalool vapors decreased anxietyand depression-like behaviors. Linalool also makes the immune system more resilient against the effects of stress. Linalool may also improve sleep quality. One study found that linalool had slightly sedative properties that left subjects more energized in the morning.
Studies suggest that linalool’s anti-inflammatory responses can help those with overactive immune responses. Linalool could also reduce pain sensitivity by blocking pain signals in the spinal cord. One study found that gastric banding surgery patients who were exposed to linalool vapor needed less post-operative opioid medication.
As shown by the Ma, J., Xu et al study, linalool may significantly reduce lung inflammation caused by cigarette smoke by blocking the carcinogenesis induced by benz[α]anthracene, a component of the tar generated by the combustion of tobacco. This finding indicates limonene may be helpful in reducing the harm caused by inhaling cannabis smoke.
Linalool boosts the immune system as it directly activates immune cells through specific receptors and/or pathways. The Sabogal-Guáqueta et al study suggests linalool may reverse the histopathological (the microscopic examination of biological tissues to observe the appearance of diseased cells and tissues in very fine detail) hallmarks of Alzheimer’s Disease and could restore cognitive and emotional functions via an anti-inflammatory effect.
Terpinolene is a common component of sage and rosemary and is found in the oil derived from Monterey cypress. Its largest use in the United States is in soaps and perfumes. It is also a great insect repellent. Terpinolene is known to have a piney aroma with slight herbal and floral nuances. It tends to have a sweet flavor reminiscent of citrus fruits like oranges and lemons.
Terpinolene complex aroma blends floral, woody, and citrus undertones. This terpene is thought to be slightly sedative. A 2013 study found that terpinolene had a sedative effect on animals after inhalation. Some research also suggests that terpinolene can help repel pestslike mosquitos.
A 2013 study on animals showed that terpinolene destroyed cancer cells. The study found that terpinolene could provide protection against inflammation and oxidative damage. These key markers are associated with cancer. Terpinolene has also been studied for its antifungal and antibacterial properties.
Terpinolene has been found to be a central nervous system depressant used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety. Further, terpinolene was found to markedly reduce the protein expression of AKT1 in K562 cells and inhibited cell proliferation involved in a variety of human cancers.
Camphene, a plant-derived monoterpene, emits pungent odors of damp woodlands and fir needles. Camphene may play a critical role in cardiovascular disease. The therapeutic properties of camphor oil are analgesic, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, cardiac, carminative, diuretic, febrifuge, hypertensive, insecticide, laxative, rubefacient, stimulant, sudorific, vermifuge and vulnerary.
The Vallianou et al study found camphene reduces plasma cholesterol and triglycerides in hyperlipidemic rats. Given the importance that the control of hyperlipidemia plays in heart disease, the results of this study provide insight into to how camphene might be used as an alternative to pharmaceutical lipid lowering agents which are proven to cause intestinal problems, liver damage and muscle inflammation. This finding alone warrants further investigation.
α-Terpineol, terpinen-4-ol, and 4-terpineol are three closely related monoterpenoids. The aroma of terpineol has been compared to lilacs and flower blossoms. Terpineol is often found in cannabis varieties that have high pinene levels, which unfortunately mask the fragrant aromas of terpineol.
Terpineol, specifically α-terpineol, is known to have calming, relaxing effects. It also exhibits antibiotic, AChe inhibitor and antioxidant antimalarial properties.
Phellandrene is described as pepperminty, with a slight scent of citrus. Phellandrene is believed to have special medicinal values. It has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat digestive disorders. It is one of the main compounds in turmeric leaf oil, which is used to prevent and treat systemic fungal infections.
Phellandrene can be found in a number of herbs and spices, including cinnamon, garlic, dill, ginger and parsley. A number of plants produce β-phellandrene as a constituent of their essential oils, including lavender and grand fir. The recognizable odors of some essential oils depend almost entirely upon the presence of phellandrene. Oil of pepper and dill oil are composed almost entirely of phellandrene. The principal constituent in oil of ginger is phellandrene. Phellandrene, particularly α-phellandrene, is absorbed through the skin, making it attractive for use in perfumes. It is also used as a flavoring for food products.
Delta-3-carene is a bicyclic monoterpene with a sweet, pungent odor. It is found naturally in many healthy, beneficial essential oils, including cypress oil, juniper berry oil and fir needle essential oils. In higher concentrations, delta-3-carene can be a central nervous system depressant. It is often used to dry out excess body fluids, such as tears, mucus, and sweat.
It is nontoxic, but may cause irritation when inhaled. Perhaps high concentrations of delta-3-carene in some strains may be partially responsible for symptoms of coughing, itchy throat and eye afflictions when smoking cannabis.
Delta-3-carene is also naturally present in pine extract, bell pepper, basil oil, grapefruit and orange juices, citrus peel oils from fruits like lemons, limes, mandarins, tangerines, oranges and kumquats.
Carene is a major component of turpentine and is used as a flavoring in many products.
Delta 3 Carene is not exclusive to cannabis. In fact, this terpene can be found in basil, bell peppers, cedar and pine trees and even rosemary. This terpene has a cedaresq aroma, but actually has a taste that resembles lemon.
BENEFITS OF DELTA 3 CARENE
Often referred to as the bone-repairing terpene, Delta 3 Carene has some very potent medical qualities. This is largely due to the potent anti-inflammatory properties exhibited by this terpene.
Anecdotal evidence and research shows us that Delta 3 Carene can actually boost bone healing for a quicker recovery. This is largely beneficial for individuals suffering from arthritis, bursitis, fibromyalgia and researchers are hopeful it can benefit individuals battling osteoporosis and osteoarthritis. This can also prove beneficial from anyone recovering from malnutrition.
While extremely impressive, bone healing is not the only benefit presented by Delta 3 Carene. This powerful terpene is also able to:
• Relieve acute inflammation, such as with arthritis or fibromyalgia
• Increase bone growth and bone repair, especially in cases of malnutrition or injury
• Stimulate memory to help improve retention – good news for Alzheimer’s patients!
Humulene is a sesquiterpene also known as α-humulene and α–caryophyllene; an isomer of β–caryophyllene. Humulene is found in hops, cannabis sativa strains, and Vietnamese coriander, among other naturally occurring substances. Humulene has an earthy and musky aroma found in hops, clove, and basil. Humulene is what gives beer its distinct ‘hoppy’ aroma. A 2007 studyfound that humulene (along with caryophyllene) had the power to treat inflammatory diseases. More studies suggested that humulene could fight off allergies when taken orally or inhaled. Humulene also has antibacterial and antifungal properties.
When tested as a part of balsam fir essential oil, the humulene terpene showed to be an effective killer of cancer cells. Its antitumor properties worked by shutting off the antioxidant processes, which helped stop tumor growth. Humulene is also thought to be an appetite suppressant, which could offset the munchies.
Humulene is considered to be anti-tumor, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anorectic (suppresses appetite). It has commonly been blended with β–caryophyllene and used as a major remedy for inflammation. Humulene has been used for generations in Chinese medicine. It aids in weight loss by acting as an appetite suppressant.
Humulene is one of the primary cannabis terpenes alongside myrcene, terpinolene, limonene, pinene and geraniol. Also common in nature, humulene is primarily found in the hops plant and gives beer its “hoppy” flavor and aroma. This terpene is also present in sage, ginger and ginseng. Humulene is unique in the fact that this particular terpene is a sesquiterpenes, meaning it travels well through the blood-brain barrier.
BENEFITS OF HUMULENE
Humulene is most commonly known for its anti-cancer properties and is This was demonstrated by a 2003 study which found that humulene killed cancer cells, especially when combined with other terpenes and cannabinoids as with a full-spectrum experience. As humulene is a sesquiterpenes, it is also able to create an oxygenated environment where cancer cells cannot survive or reproduce. In addition, they can even erase cancerous cell information.
However, killing cancer cells is not the only benefit that humulene can provide! In fact, it has several other beneficial properties including:
A 2007 study found that humulene has comparable anti-inflammatory properties to a steroid called dexamethasone. A study conducted one year later found the same results, proving that both oral and topical use of humulene can reduce inflammation and subsequently, pain. Studies conducted on essential oils containing humulene have found that they provide greater pain-relief than those without this potent terpene. Beyond destroying cancer cells and managing inflammation, humulene is also a powerful antibacterial agent as reported in many studies. It also has some anxiolytic and sedative effects.
As humulene easily travels through the blood-brain barrier (and given the anti-inflammatory benefits), it is particularly well-suited to managing conditions like Alzheimer’s, multiple sclerosis, Lou Gehrig’s and Parkinson’s Disease.
Pulegone, a monocyclic monoterpenoid, is a minor component of cannabis. Higher concentrations of pulegone are found in rosemary. Rosemary breaks down acetylcholine in the brain, allowing nerve cells to communicate more effectively with one another.
Pulegone has a minty-camphor odor and flavor that is used in the candy industry. It is implicated in liver damage in very high dosages. Pulegone is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Thus, it stops the action of the protein that destroys acetylcholine, which is used by the brain to store memories. It may counteract THC’s activity, which leads to low acetylcholine levels. The result is that you would forget more on THC alone than you would on THC accompanied by Pulegone.
An ethnopharmacology study indicates pulegone may have significant sedative and fever-reducing properties. It may also alleviate the side effects of short-term memory loss sometimes associated with higher levels of THC.
Pulegone has a pleasant peppermint aroma and is considered to be a strong insecticide.
Sabinene is a bicyclic monoterpene whose aromas are reminiscent of the holidays (pines, oranges, spices).
Results of an ongoing study by Valente et al suggest that sabinene should be explored further as a natural source of new antioxidant and anti-inflammatory drugs for the development of food supplements, nutraceuticals or plant-based medicines.
Geraniol produces a sweet, delightful smell similar to roses. This makes geraniol a popular choice for many bath and body products. It is also known to be an effective mosquito repellant. Medically, geraniol shows promise in the treatment of neuropathy.
Geraniol has a medium strength, floral, sweet, rosey, fruity odor with citrus to citronella-like odor nuances. Its flavor is floral, rosy, waxy and perfumey with a fruity peach-like nuance. It is used as a flavor and fragrance agent. It is used in flavors such as peach, raspberry, grapefruit, red apple, plum, lime, orange, lemon, watermelon, pineapple, and blueberry. It is also used for cosmetic Uses as a perfuming agent. Geraniol is a natural antioxidant. It inhibits DNA synthesis. In one study, Geraniol was shown to suppress pancreatic tumor growth.
Borneol has a menthol and woody aroma. As an ancient Asian medicinal ingredient, borneol is believed to have anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. As a relaxing sedative, borneol can also reduce fatigue and improve your mood.